1800 - 1899
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1808
Under the guise of heading to Portugal, Napoleon Bonaparte leads troops into Spain and begins the Peninsular War. Juan Martín Díaz and Agustina de Aragón become two of Spain’s most celebrated rebels, and the common use of the term “guerrilla” is adopted to describe irregular warfare, usually involving independent units who harass or sabotage their enemy.

1845
Prosper Mérimée writes the novella  "Carmen."

1848
Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo signed.

1853
At 14, Tiburcio Vásquez is accused of taking part in the murder of Constable William Hardmount in Northern California.

1850
Joaquín Murrieta leaves Mexico to seek fortune in California gold rush.

1859
Juan Cortina confronts abusive Anglo marshal for pistol-whipping a family employee;  "Cortina's War" begins with Texas Rangers.

1865
June 23, 1865, Brigadier General Stand Watie, a chief of the Cherokee Nation, surrenders to the Union, becoming the last Confederate general to do so, more than two months after Lee’s surrender at Appomattox Courthouse.

1876
Porfirio Díaz seizes power in Mexico.

1884
Elfego Baca defends townspeople of Reserve, NM, from marauding cowboys.
carmen photo still
Carmen
baca portrait
Elfego Baca
Tiburcio Vasquez
Tiburcio Vásquez