Under the guise of heading to Portugal, Napoleon Bonaparte leads troops into Spain and begins the Peninsular War. Juan Martín Díaz and Agustina de Aragón become two of Spain’s most celebrated rebels, and the common use of the term “guerrilla” is adopted to describe irregular warfare, usually involving independent units who harass or sabotage their enemy.
Prosper Mérimée writes the novella "Carmen."
Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo signed.
At 14, Tiburcio Vásquez is accused of taking part in the murder of Constable William Hardmount in Northern California.
Joaquín Murrieta leaves Mexico to seek fortune in California gold rush.
Juan Cortina confronts abusive Anglo marshal for pistol-whipping a family employee; "Cortina's War" begins with Texas Rangers.
June 23, 1865, Brigadier General Stand Watie, a chief of the Cherokee Nation, surrenders to the Union, becoming the last Confederate general to do so, more than two months after Lee’s surrender at Appomattox Courthouse.
Porfirio Díaz seizes power in Mexico.