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Good Bandits, Warrior Women, and Revolutionaries in Hispanic Culture

The Happening 2009


The Good Bandits, Warrior Women and Revolutionaries Happening

The Mexican Revolution of 1910 and its Cultural Legacy


Bold Caballeros and Noble Bandidas:
The Good, The Bad, The Beautifu

The Happening (November 18-20, 2010) is part of a long-term project, Bold Caballeros and Noble Bandidas: The Good, The Bad, The Beautiful.  Here you will find an overview of the project and information on the Web sites, existing and projected scholarly tools, and illustrative research topics.

The terms caballeros and bandidas/-os are used elliptically to stand for a wide set of analogous historical and popular culture personages in various cultures and languages. Synonyms for caballeros include knights, chevaliers, gallants, hidalgos, and other heroes when these personages act to succor the powerless or oppressed. Synonyms for bandidas/-os include bandits, banditi (Italian) and even the mock Spanish banditos, often used in American films, as well as brigands, pirates, thieves, highwaymen/highwaywomen, and others.


General Announcement
Brief Project Overview
            Project Initiatives and Product Development
Contacting and/or Obtaining Information About the Project
            Topics Listed and Types of Commissions
            Publication and Acknowledgement
            Length of Research Commissions

Research Topics
            Research Completed and Published or in Press
                        Major Essays
                        Focused Entries
                        Research Commissioned
                        Major Essays
                        Focused Entries
            Research Topics Identified and Needed
                        Major Essays
                                    Archetype Research
                                    Cultural Studies
                                    Song, Dance, and Choreography
                                    Theoretical Constructs and Interdisciplinary Research
                                    Visual Arts Research and Iconography
                                    Women’s Studies
                        Focused Entries
                                    American Indian Warriors and Chiefs
                                    Comparative Ethnic and Racial Research; Research on Outcasts
                                    Latino/a Social Bandits of Nineteenth Century, United State s
                                    Major Films
                                    Mexican Revolution of 1910
                                    Popular Resistances, Revolutions, and Insurgencies
                                    Postmodern and Postmillennial Bandidas/Bandidos
                                    Specific Actors, Personas of
                                    Specific Directors
                                    Specific Historical Periods
                                    Specific Cultures or Regions
                                    Visual Arts Research and Iconography

General Announcement

Arizona State University's Hispanic Research Center announces a major, long-term, multimedia project entitled Bold Caballeros and Noble Bandidas: The Good, the Bad, the Beautiful. We are interested in collaborators for all aspects of the project.

Brief Project Overview

The project focuses on Latina/o noble bandits in Iberian American culture (Spain, Latin America, the United States, and elsewhere), but it does so in a broad and generous way and thus provides, to a lesser degree, text and images on banditry in antiquity and in other nations and cultures, including the Far East, the Middle East, Oceania, Africa, Europe, and elsewhere. We expect the project to run for decades and to undergo extensive development by a worldwide community interested in noble bandits in popular culture as well as in the related social science construct of "social banditry."

Project Initiatives and Product Development

This open-ended project is expected to produce the following initiatives and products:

* Web site. The Web site can be found at Currently in its initial stages, it will continue to develop over coming years as many project participants contribute to its richness.

* Bold Caballeros and Noble Bandidas Book. The project team is committed to producing an outstanding and exceptionally attractive book that we envision as a full-color, large-format volume with the provisional title Bold Caballeros and Noble Bandidas: The Good, The Bad, The Beautiful. A few sample pages have been designed, and you can see them at Hispanic Research Center's Bilingual Press, located at Arizona State University, will publish the book, which will be similar in size and design to Triumph of Our Communities: Four Decades of Mexican American Art, a volume that has garnered critical acclaim for its design qualities (see to learn more about this title). For more information about the Bilingual Press and the books it offers, visit

* Mexican Revolution of 1910 Book. The project also includes a second full-color, large-format book that will commemorate the centenary of the Mexican Revolution of 1910. The tentative title of this book is The Mexican Revolution Of 1910 And Its Cultural Legacy. Visit for an exhibition we are developing on this subject.

* DVD-ROM. A DVD-ROM is underway that will augment the Bold Caballeros book. While the book will privilege images (photographs, artwork, posters, film stills, etc.), the DVD-ROM will contain numerous essays, shorter entries, and thousands of additional images on noble and base bandits (particularly those from the Latina/o community worldwide) that couldn't possibly fit in the book.

* Exhibition at the Autry National Center. The Hispanic Research Center and the Autry National Center in Los Angeles, most specifically its Museum of the American West, are developing a joint exhibition that will be dedicated to the centennial of the Mexican Revolution of 1910, especially to the image of the noble and ignoble warrior-bandits of that Revolution in American popular culture. Some of those figures include Francisco "Pancho" Villa, Emiliano Zapata, Coronela María de la Luz Espinosa Barrera, and Pascual Orozco.

*Conference. The project team is committed to our first conference on bandits in popular culture and the social sciences in the spring of 2009. We anticipate continuing it biannually.

*Video DVD. The project may develop one or more video DVDs that would anthologize films relevant to the project that are either in the public domain or for which permissions are available at reasonable costs.

Contacting and/or Obtaining Information About the Project

We invite interested individuals to participate in the project in one or more ways. Please contact us (see below) with your ideas and interests. The easiest way to do this, if convenient for you, would be through email. The project will be using a membership group soon, and that information will be provided when it has been established.

Gary D. Keller, Regents' Professor
Hispanic Research Center
PO Box 875303
Arizona State University
Tempe, AZ 85287-5303
Fax: 480-965-0315
General HRC telephone: 480-965-3990

About the Project Founders

The Bold Caballeros and Noble Bandidas project was founded by the faculty and professionals of Arizona State University's Hispanic Research Center (particularly those of the Publishing and Product Development Division) and several affiliated faculty and researcher working groups.

Topics Listed and Types of Commissions

The project has developed a list of relevant topics, listed below. This list is not comprehensive; rather, it is merely illustrative and suggestive. The project expects to run for decades and to generate considerable additional research and publication. The list is divided into three categories: completed, published, or in press; commissioned; and research topics identified and needed. Topics in the first two categories are no longer available for development through the project. Topics listed in the third category are open for development, and the project invites expressions of interest by researchers interested in covering them. Topics remain open until they are moved into either the completed or commissioned categories. This list will be continually updated.

As a matter of convenience, the project has divided commissions into major essays and focused entries, depending on length and complexity.

Publication and Acknowledgement

All satisfactorily realized commissions will be published in either digital or hard copy form. See Project Initiatives and Product Development section above for further details. In addition to the products described there, it may be possible to publish full-length essays in book form through the Bilingual Press/Editorial Bilingüe.

Length of Research Commissions

The length of major essays is open and in fact can be book length. Most major essays will probably be between 10 and 50 pages.

The length of focused entries will probably be up to 10 pages.

It is anticipated that some research projects that begin as focused entries will develop and expand into major essays.

Research Topics

Note:  The following index on the Bold Caballeros and Noble Bandidas website is very useful:

Research Published (Hard Copy or Electronically) or In Press

Primary Texts

Nash Candelaria, “The Day Cisco Kid Shot John Wayne”

O. Henry, “The Caballero’s Way,” [facsimile of canonical text]

Prosper Merimée, Carmen

Major Essays

Gary D. Keller, Arizona State University. “The Good, Good-Bad, Bad Paradigm [in Latina/o Popular Culture.” Status:  On the Web, at and forthcoming in the book Bold Caballeros & Noble Bandidas: The Good, The Bad, The Beautiful, scheduled for publication in spring 2010.

Catherine Leen, National University of Ireland, Maynooth. "The Caballero Revisited: Postmodernity in The Cisco Kid, The Mask of Zorro, and Shrek 2.” Status: Published on Bold Caballero and Noble Bandida Web site ( and in Bilingual Review/Revista Bilingüe, January-April, 2004-2007.

Francis M. Nevins and Gary D. Keller, The Cisco Kid: American Hero, Hispanic Roots. Status: This is a revision of an earlier book, Francis M. Nevins, The Films of The Cisco Kid, Waynesville, NC: The World of Yesterday, 1998. Bilingual Press, fall 2009.
Gary D. Keller, “Bilingualism, Biculturalism, & The Cisco Kid Cycle,” Bilingual Review/Revista Bilingüe, spring 2008.

HRC Bold Caballero Working Group, “Analysis of Outlaws of the Marsh

Focused Entries

HRC Bold Caballero Working Group, “Banditry in the Ancient World,”

HRC Bold Caballero Working Group, “Social Bandits, Rebels, and Revolutionaries,”

HRC Bold Caballero Working Group, “The Good, Good-Bad, Bad Paradigm,”

Research Completed in Draft Form and Being Revised for Publication

Gonzalo Sobejano, (Columbia University), “Bandoleros, aventureros, guerrilleros en el Quijote”

Santiago Daydí-Tolson, “Demetrio Macías, el heroico bandido justiciero”
Patricia Thompson and Gino Rizzo (Patricia Thompson, University of Padova, Italy), “Guiseppe Garibaldi and Anita Ribeiro di Garibaldi: Heroic Fighters in the Cause of Social Justice.”

Research Topics Identified and Needed

Major Essays (by category)

Archetype Research

The Carmen Archetype in World Culture
The Development of the Carmen Archetype in Film
The Archetype of La Celestina and the Procuress as a Good-Bad Character or as an Irredeemable Character
Robin Hood Narratives Over the Centuries
The Iconography of Robin Hood and Robin Hood-Derived Characters
Don Juan as Bad and as Good-Bad Over the Centuries

Cultural Studies

The Border in Latina/o Noble Bandit Narratives and Films

The Depiction and Role of Children in the Popular Culture of Banditry

Dyads Over the Centuries: Knights and Squires, Don Quixote and Sancho Panza, Heroes and Sidekicks in Popular Film (Cisco and Pancho; Lone Ranger and Tonto)

Common Elements in The Cisco Kid, Zorro, and Other Latina/o Noble Bandit Films. Elements include: A. Stunts; B. Comedy; C. Disguise, use of; E. Figure of Padre and matters clerical and/or religious; F. Use of music; G. Intraethnic and interethnic courtship; H. Use of Spanglish and code-switching for comedy, ethnic stereotyping, and bicultural purposes.

Costumes and Props of Noble Bandit Popular Culture. Database includes: black outfits; black hats and white hats; masks; whips; horses as named characters; swords, guns, and rifles.

Comparative Study of The Cisco Kid and Billy the Kid

Female and Feminist Counterparts to Noble Bandits in Popular Culture. Database includes numerous films such as 100 Rifles (Raquel Welch), Alias Billy the Kid (1946) and Son of Zorro (1947, Peggy Stewart), Bandidas (2006, Salma Hayek and Penelope Cruz), Bandit Queen (Barbara Britton), Beauty and the Bandit (1946, Ramsay Ames), Cobra Woman (1944, María Montez), La cucaracha (María Félix and Dolores del Río), Daughter of Don Q (Linda Stirling), Ladies Courageous (1944, Loretta Young), and Pat Garrett and Billy the Kid (1973, Katy Jurado). It also includes female counterpart serials such as the following:
              1. The Avenging Arrow (1921) starring Ruth Roland
              2. Jungle Girl (1941) starring Frances Gifford
              3. Perils of Nyoka (1942) and Daredevils of the West (1943) starring Kay Aldridge
              4. Perils of Pauline starring Pearl White
              5. Tiger Woman starring Linda Stirling
              6. Zorro’s Black Whip (1946)starring Linda Stirling

The Formation and Development of the Concept of the Noble Savage in Belles Lettres and Popular Culture

Mexican Noble Bandit and Ignoble Bandit Films and Their Contrasts with American Examples of the Genre. Database includes: Carabina 30-30,El compadre Mendoza, La cucaracha,El Enamorado,Gangsters Contra Charros, El Norteño, Pancho Villa Returns!, Si Adelita se fuera con otro (1948), El Último Rebelde, and Vámonos con Pancho Villa.

The Mexican Revolution of 1910 as Entertainment Spectacle and Source of Adventure

Group Westerns in the Popular Culture of Noble Banditry. Database includes: Three Musketeers film series; Magnificent Seven film series, The Wild Bunch, and Los tres García.

The Taxonomy of Bad Women in Popular Culture, including the Carmen Archetype, and the Emergence of the Vamp and Femme Fatales in Silent Cinema.

Song, Dance, and Choreography

The singing cowboy, the comedia ranchera, and the depiction of the hacienda in popular culture. For example, the relationship between Allá en el rancho grande (1936, directed by Fernando de Fuentes, starring Tito Guizar), Rancho Grande (1940, directed by Frank McDonald, starring Gene Autry and Smiley Burnette), and Allá en el rancho grande (1949, directed by Fernando de Fuentes, starring Jorge Negrete).

Theoretical Constructs and Interdisciplinary Research

Eric Hobsbawm and His Followers Versus Anton Blok and His Followers: The Ongoing Polemic About the Development of Good-Bad Characters in Popular Culture

St. Augustine Views of Banditry and the State: A Study of Relative Roles

Evil Thieves/Bandits and Good Thieves/Bandits in Religious Narrative

The Development of Guerrilla Warfare Over the Centuries

The Concept of Social Justice Versus Poetic Justice: The “people” usually lose out in reality but make up for it through the mythification of historical personages (e.g., Zapata, Pancho Villa, Spartacus, Robin Hood, etc.)

Visual Art Research and IconographyHeroes and Noble Bandits in Chicano/Latino Art. Examples:
Alfredo Arreguín’s images of Emiliano Zapata in Herencia, Zapata’s Messengers, and others
Nash Candelaria’s short story, “The Day Cisco Kid Shot John Wayne”
Sam Coronado’s images of The Cisco Kid, Pancho Villa, and guerrilleras of the EZLN
Carlos Cortez Koyokuikatl, Ricardo Flores Magón
Héctor Duarte, Pancho Villa and The Wetback
Xavier Garza’s images of wrestlers such as Santos and Blue Demon and Chicano Power versus Quetzalcoatl
Eduardo González, Tierra o Libertad
Luis Guerrero, El Super Mufflerman
Luis Jiménez, The Good Shepherd
Luis Mena’s images of Emiliano Zapata
Elías San Miguel, Zapata, el primer hijo de Morelos
Santiago Pérez, Gregorio Cortés
Daniel Salazar, El mandilón
Héctor Silva, María Félix
George Yepes, Adelita

Women’s Studies

Female Counterparts to Latino Male Noble Heroes in Silent Film

Bandidas and Guerreras in the History and the Popular Culture of the Mexican Revolution of 1910

The Emergence of the Female Hero or Noble Bandit in U.S. Film Serials (Examples, Ruth Roland in The Avenging Arrow (1921) and Linda Stirling in Zorro’s Black Whip (1946)

Focused Entries

American Indian Warriors and Chiefs. Examples:
Chief Joseph, Nez Perce
Crazy Horse
Manuelito, Navaho War Chief
Nachez (Son of Cochise), Chief of Chiricahua Apaches
Powder Face
Red Cloud of the Oglala Lakota
Short Bull
Sitting Bull of the Hunkpapa Sioux
Spotted Tail

Comparative Ethnic and Racial Research: Research on Outcasts

Greasers (both “good” greasers and bandit greasers) in American Pulp Fiction and Film
American Indians as Outcasts
Blacks as Outcasts
History and Development of the Concept of the Noble Savage
Bad Characters Who Are Transformed into Good (e.g., conversions of pícaros into saints)
Gringos versus Greasers in the Thought and Writings of José Vasconcelos
The Aryan starring William S. Hart
Half Breeds and Mixed Blood lines in Films and Other Forms of Popular Culture
Miscegenation and Noble and Base Bandits
Whites Playing Indians and Mexicans/Latinos
Indians Playing Indians and Mexicans/Latinos Playing Themselves

Latino/a Social Bandits of 19th Century, United States

Elfego Baca
Juan Cortina
Las Gorras Blancas
Gregorio Cortez
Joaquín Murrieta (a special subtopic is Pablo Neruda’s play, Joaquín Murrieta)
Teresita Urrea


Etymology of the Word and Concept Guerrilla

The Sociolinguistics of English, Spanish, Italian, and Mock English Bandido, Bandida, Bandito, Banditi.

Major Films (Note: The Bold Caballeros and Noble Bandidas Web site has scores of film entries and dozens of film clips The suggested entries below have special relevance to the project.

Spartacus as Noble Rebel

The Depiction of Emiliano Zapata in Viva Zapata! (1952, directed by Elia Kazan, starring Marlon Branco

The Depiction of Pancho Villa in Viva Zapata! (1934, directed by Jack Conway, starring Wallace Beery)

Mexican Revolution of 1910. Note: A separate book that will cover this topic is projected to be published in 2010.

Coronelas and Generalas


Specific Females Including Margarita Neri, Emma Roldán, and Valentina Ramírez

Zapata, Zapatistas, and Zapatismo in History, Belles Lettres and Popular Culture

Brothers Ricardo and Enrique Flores Magón and Their Slogan, “Tierra y Libertad” Subsequently Introduced to Zapatismo Through The Influence of Antonio Díaz Soto y Gama (1880-1967)

Villa & Villistas in History and Popular Culture

Popular Resistances, Revolutions, and Insurgencies
Radical Robin Hoods
Augustina de Aragón and El Empecinado as Rebel Leaders of the People
Heroic Priests and Clerics (e.g., the Goya series on Friar Pedro)
Spanish Civil War
La Pasionaria
Mexican Revolution of 1910
Wars of Independence
Simón Bolívar and Manuela Sáenz

Postmodern and Postmillennial Bandidas/Bandidos
Kill Bill films
Robert Rodríguez films
Penélope Cruz and Salma Hayek, Bandidas

Specific Actors, Personas of
Analysis of Broncho Billy as a Good-Bad Character
Analysis of William S. Hart as a Good-Bad Character Actor
Analysis of Errol Flynn as a Good-Bad Character Actor
Analysis of Douglas Fairbanks, Sr., as a Bandit Hero
Analysis of María Félix as a Good-Bad Revolutionary

Specific Directors
Emilio “El Indio” Fernández
Marcela Fernández Violante
John Ford
Fernando de Fuentes
D.W. Griffith
William S. Hart
Howard Hawks
John Huston
Sergio Leone
Sam Peckinpah
Richard Rodríguez
Quentin Tarantino
Chano Urueta
Luis Valdez

Specific Historic Periods
Banditry in the Roman Empire and the Storylines of Good Bandits

Augustina de Aragón and Juan Martín Díaz, El Empecinadoin Belle Lettres (El Empecinado by Benito Pérez Galdós, Art (Goya and others), and Popular Culture (various films)

Specific Cultures or Regions
The Activities of Lampaio and His Significance in Brazil
Noble Bandits in the Southern Cone of Latin America

Television Studies
Cisco and Zorro on the Small Screen
Elfego Baca television series, Walt Disney
Visual Art Research and Iconography
The Iconography of Freedom as a Woman (e.g, Delacroix, Liberty Guiding the People; El Angel in Mexico City, The Statue of Liberty, Nephtalí de León, Guadaliberty, Tony Ortega’s statue of liberty, Sam Coronado, Untitled Guerrilla Women)